18/10/16

Antara Jokowi dan Tito

Sources: http://www.mediaindonesia.com/news/read/51610/antara-jokowi-dan-tito/2016-06-18
DALAM tulisan ini saya ingin menilai Presiden Joko Widodo dan Komisaris Jenderal Tito Karnavian dari spektrum politik kenegaraan yang lebih luas dan 'lentur' terkait dengan penunjukan calon tunggal Kepala Kepolisian Republik Indonesia dalam pendekatan hukum hak prerogatif konstitusional presiden. Inilah keputusan politik terbaik Presiden Jokowi selama dua tahun terakhir menjabat. Penunjukan Kepala Badan Penanggulangan Terorisme (BNPT) itu merupakan hal positif yang dilakukan Presiden Jokowi terlepas dari beragam pandangan yang menyebutkan Tito dianggap masih terlalu junior dan mengganggu' suasana internal karier kepolisian.

Menurut pengamatan saya pula, amat mungkin sosok Tito akan di-approve fraksi-fraksi di DPR. Jika ini terjadi, kemungkinan Tito akan menjadi kapolri terlama jika tidak ada tsunami politik di tengah jalan karena dia baru akan pensiun pada 2022. Sosok Tito sudah tepat di-endorse Presiden Jokowi untuk menggantikan Jenderal Badrodin Haiti, terlepas beragam rumor di balik tidak adanya pilihan calon kapolri lain, yang relatif punya akseptabilitas publik yang baik. Rumor muncul setelah 'diisukan' Badrodin tidak bersedia diperpanjang jabatannya atau soal kontroversi publik terhadap dua kandidat kuat lainnya, Budi Gunawan dan Budi Waseso. Penunjukan Tito merupakan jalan tengah yang cukup masuk akal bagi pemerintahan Jokowi-JK. Secara politik, setidaknya polemik soal kapolri telah menyita energi pemerintahan dalam kurun dua tahun terakhir. Jika Tito terpilih, setidaknya sampai dengan pemerintahan ini berakhir, institusi Polri akan lebih steril dari dilema dan polemik panjang soal kursi Tribrata 1.

Pesan buat Polri dan Tito

Tito mempunyai rekam jejak internasional yang baik yang dimulai dari sekolah, kursus, seminar, sampai dengan penanganan kasus kriminalitas top level internasional. Termasuk soal keberhasilan dan kegemilangan Tito mengendus dan mengungkap kejahatan internasional kelas kakap. Hal tersebut secara langsung dari sudut pandang internasional juga akan menjadi advantage bagi pemerintahan Jokowi-JK. Memperoleh dua gelar S-2 (master) dari Inggris dan Selandia Baru serta gelar doktoral dari Nanyang Technological University di Singapura setidaknya membuktikan bahwa kapasitas intelektual Tito di atas rata-rata perwira polisi lainnya.

Tidak banyak anggota Polri yang memperoleh gelar master dan Phd dari universitas terbaik di luar negeri. Setidaknya tradisi itu sudah dimulai Tito dan mungkin juga Jokowi dengan tidak sengaja telah memulai memberikan porsi jabatan terbaik untuk anggota Polri, yang punya pendidikan terbaik. Selama ini kita bisa lihat jarang sekali perwira aktif Polri yang punya gelar doktor, apalagi dari universitas ternama dunia. Ini merupakan kultur baru. Setidaknya jenderal yang doktor menjadi syarat 'tidak resmi' kapolri selanjutnya sehingga dengan sendirinya akan berdampak pada suasana kompetisi akademik internal yang baik di tubuh Polri.

Bayley (2001) dalam sebuah artikel Democratizing the Police Abroad: What to do and How to do it memaparkan institusi polisi dituntut bisa memberikan pelayan terbaik bagi setiap warga negara. Institusi ini juga dituntut bisa transparan dalam setiap aktivitas. Dua kata kunci dari Bayley soal pelayanan prima pada publik dan transparansi ini, harus diakui selama ini masih menjadi kendala utama Polri. Ini akan menjadi pekerjaan rumah utama Kapolri ke depan. Harapan ini juga sebenarnya menjadi harapan Presiden Jokowi yang mengharapkan sosok kapolri ke depan dapat meningkatkan kualitas dan kinerja institusi hukum tersebut.

Perbaikan kualitas

Untuk mewujudkan hal tersebut ada tiga hal utama yang harus menjadi domain kerja kapolri dan jajarannya selama beberapa tahun ke depan. Boleh dikata domain kerja ini kita anggap sebagai tantangan Polri secara umum. Tantangan tersebut ialah; pertama, masih lemahnya sumber daya manusia Polri, terutama soal kapasitas penjurusan seperti kualitas pemahaman akan lalu lintas, forensik dan cyber crime. Tidak ada kata lain, untuk meng-upgrade kualitas ini, Polri harus mengirim para anggotanya sekolah di tempat-kampus terbaik dunia. Sebagai contoh Institute for Transport Studies di Universitas Leeds adalah tempat terbaik untuk perwira polisi belajar manajemen transportasi atau belajar mengenai forensic science di Universitas Strathclyde.

Saya mencatat, misalkan, hanya ada satu perwira Polri aktif saat ini yang sedang mengenyam pendidikan doktoral di luar negeri, tepatnya di Universitas Leeds, menurut saya sangat jauh dari harapan memperbaiki kualitas anggota Polri secara umum. Merasakan sekolah di luar negeri seperti yang pernah dirasakan Tito Karnavian setidaknya pengalaman harus juga dirasakan para polisi muda sehingga ada sensasi need for achievement yang lebih baik ke depan.

Tantangan kedua ialah soal kompleksitas masalah yang dihadapi Polri ke depan. Setidaknya ada tiga tingkatan tantangan Polri, yaitu level nasional, regional, dan internasional. Pada level nasional, misalnya, memperbaiki citra kepolisian di masyarakat menjadi tantangan serius yang hingga kini belum terselesaikan oleh Polri. Sangat penting meraih simpati dan kepercayaan publik, apalagi di era keterbukaan informasi dan media sosial. Di level regional dan internasional, persoalan pokok, tentu yang paling mencolok ialah deradikalisasi terorisme dan beberapa isu trans national crime, misalnya, isu lingkungan seperti perambahan kayu secara liar dan kebakaran hutan serta masalah yang terkait erat dengan human trafficking.

Pada akhirnya untuk mengatasi beragam hal tersebut, internal kepolisian mesti solid, plus Presiden mesti menjauhkan institusi ini dari hiruk pikuk kontestasi elite politik. Pengusulan Tito Karnavian menjadi Kapolri ialah hal yang sudah tepat, setidaknya dengan kapasitas, kualitas serta usia yang muda. Polri di bawah Tito kelak akan mempunyai ruang ekspresi yang lebih simpatik dan elok. Semoga.

Sources: http://www.mediaindonesia.com/news/read/51610/antara-jokowi-dan-tito/2016-06-18

dipublikasi oleh Media Indonesia tanggal 18 Juni 2016

Commentary: Jakarta, Manila and the South China Sea

Sources: http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/opinion/commentary-jakarta-manila-south-china-sea/
At least three important aspects are relevant in the current debate related to the South China Sea dispute. These are security, internal politics and anti-American policy, the last in particular by the Chinese government.

This is understandable by the fact that United States President Barack Obama's current policy toward China has been aggressive in many ways. Admittedly, both the United States and China have various economic, security and political interests in the South China Sea.
I have regularly mentioned the importance of a political geographic approach in understanding the South China Sea dispute. The central debate in the dispute looks attractive now after Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte bravely insulted Obama as a "son of a whore" some weeks ago.

Although Duterte, through his spokesman, later clarified the statement and apologized to Obama, it is clear that Manila is moving towards closer ties with Beijing.
This assessment is backed by the fact that Duterte has urged the US military to leave the Southern Philippines, and by a report in the Wall Street Journal some days ago that "Duterte would dismiss military patrols alongside the US Army in the South China Sea to avoid upsetting Beijing."

We know that Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, have political, economic and social interests in the South China Sea. And since the world is now divided into two big economic blocks – the United States and China – it is not surprising that the Philippines under Duterte has been trying to strengthen its relations with China.
So the next questions are: What is the Indonesian government's position toward the South China Sea dispute and the "silent" conflict of interest between the United States and China? And what should the Indonesian government's position be on the South China dispute? How should Indonesia accommodate the interests of the world's two biggest powers without neglecting our national interests?

Indonesia's Position

In its foreign policy objectives, Indonesia has clearly indicated that it stands for a free and active platform, so that a balance between the interests of the United States and China is needed without negatively impacting on our sovereignty. It represents so-called soft power by implementing a cultural and also a technical approach to maintain our interests in the South China Sea.

Firstly, we know President Joko "Jokowi" Widodo favors diplomacy, so his background as a businessman has therefore resulted in a dynamic leadership style. This is an advantage for Indonesian foreign policy, particularly when the country has to be the balancing power between the varied interests of the countries in the Southeast Asia region. So I am confident that Jokowi's leadership style would make Indonesia's position politically and technically vital in finding a solution to the South China Sea dispute.

Secondly, the Indonesian government's current maritime policy should prioritize the usage of space and place in the archipelago. Ensuring that every single area, especially the outer islands, are occupied and empowered by its people. However, while this is not an easy task, maritime policy must be integrated to harmonize the security and economic aspects.
In the globalized and regionalized world of today, a technical approach to maximizing the policy on space and place is necessary for maintaining a country's sovereignty, particularly for an archipelago such as Indonesia.

Finally, it is not an easy task to deal with the more intensified conflicts nowadays, but Indonesia should be in front as the leading country to create a better and more peaceful world.

Arizka Warganegara is a political analyst from the University of Lampung and a Ph.D. candidate in political geography at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom.

sources: http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/opinion/commentary-jakarta-manila-south-china-sea/

Published by Jakarta Globe: 9 October 2016

Commentary: Jokowi's Cabinet Reshuffle Leaves No Doubt Who's in Charge, the President Himself

Sources: http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/opinion/commentary-jokowis-cabinet-reshuffle-leaves-no-doubt-whos-charge-president/
President Joko "Jokowi" Widodo’s second cabinet reshuffle a few days ago has left a few questions unanswered, especially when two former senior ministers were unexpectedly called back. Former Soeharto strongman General Wiranto returned as Chief Security Minister and former finance minister under Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono's presidency, Sri Mulyani, was reinstalled in the same post she left six years ago.

On the surface, Jokowi's cabinet shake-up looks like it was intended to improve the performance of the economic and maritime affairs ministries. In the last few months, the president has hardly disguised his dissatisfaction with both coordinating ministries and had hinted that some personnel changes were inevitable. And now, he's made good on his words.

Non-political appointments like Sri Mulyani and Archandra Tahar add to the increasingly long list of industry professionals appointed to Jokowi’s cabinet. Whether or not they can lift their respective ministries' performance remains to be seen.

But what the public wants to know more is the political horse trading — or as we say it in Indonesia, "cow trading" — behind the latest reshuffle. Suffice it to say, this round of reshuffle has knocked some doubts on Jokowi’s political leadership for six. Jokowi is the skipper of his team, leave no doubt about that.

Previously, many speculated there were at least three shadowy puppet masters running things in Jokowi’s administration: Vice President Jusuf Kalla, Indonesian Democratic Party for Struggle chairwoman Megawati Soekarnoputri — who brought Jokowi the presidency — and his old Chief Security Minister Luhut Panjaitan.

The latest cabinet reshuffle shows clearly who is the real man in charge of the cabinet: the president. It is also clear that the latest shake-up of the cabinet was also done to satisfy the demands of the president's new coalition of parties, though Jokowi seemed to have managed to flex his muscles to in this regard, with some parties being left befuddled to work out if they have lost more than they have gained.

Cabinet shake-up works to Jokowi's advantage

Having secured the backing of the National Mandate Party (PAN) and the Golkar Party in his new coalition, Jokowi could be excused for thinking that he might finally be able to get his cabinet to work full bore to reach the goals of his much-promoted nine-pronged structural reform program, the "Nawacita."

Both parties have now been given seats in the cabinet, though Jokowi seems to have flummoxed Golkar with his choice of Airlangga Hartarto — by all accounts not a popular figure in Golkar — as minister of industry.

Rushing to get his new ministers to work, Jokowi dragged them to their first plenary meeting barely hours after they were sworn in, The president's messages were clear: avoid conflict, focus on work (as he always says, "work, work, work") and create strong synergy between the ministries.

The team must come first, Jokowi seems to say. Outspoken and controversial ministers like Rizal Ramli, Yudi Chrisnandi and Ignatius Jonan were not team players and that's why they must go. In Rizal's case, people could be forgiven for thinking that his string of verbal attacks on his own colleagues might have just been too much for the quintessential soft-spoken Javanese in Jokowi.

There is also the future to look forward to — specifically 2019, when the next presidential election will take place. Jokowi needs a government that works and that the public likes. And for that, he needs to make compromises with his coalition of parties while at the same time getting enough people on his side to push through with his populist agenda.
Now we know where the Nawacita will lead us to: a second term for the real, beloved puppet master of the people, President Jokowi.

Arizka Warganegara is a political analyst and a PhD Candidate in Political Geography at the University of Leeds.

sources: http://jakartaglobe.beritasatu.com/opinion/commentary-jokowis-cabinet-reshuffle-leaves-no-doubt-whos-charge-president/